Individual’s Ability To Quit Smoking Essay Discussion Paper

## Question

1) A researcher is interested in Springfield citizens’ shopping habits and surveys a randomly selected group of 200 Walmart shoppers.

In the survey, 76% said that price of an item was more important to them than where the item was produced.

The researcher concluded that “About three-quarters of the people in Springfield are more concerned with cost than where an item is made.”

Do you have concerns about the researcher’s conclusion?

A) Yes, the sample of Wal-Mart customers is most likely not representative of the population.

B) Yes, 76% is not exactly three-quarters.

C) Yes, the size of the sample is too small.

D) No, the conclusion seems valid.

2) While we generally use a p-value of 0.05 as our alpha value (our refernce p-value to which we compare our study results), we can change our alpha value to either be more or less tolerant of random error. If you have a hypothesis test with alpha = 0.03 (our reference p-value), which of the following P-Values does NOT imply statistical significance? Individual’s Ability To Quit Smoking Essay Discussion Paper

A) 0.011

B) 0.091

C) 0.005

D) 0.029

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3) When you calculate a risk ratio using a contingency table you get a point estimate. This risk ratio point estimate represents the association in your specific data. Once we run statistical tests, we can identify if this risk ratio is significant or not in the context of a larger population by looking at the the 95% confidence interval or p-value.

If the risk ratio for my study was 0.64, which confidence interval would suggest significance and which would suggest non-significant results?

A. (0.48 – 1.16)

B. (0.25 – 0.91)

4) Only about 20% of people who try to quit smoking succeed. Sellers of a motivational tape claim that listening to the recorded messages can help people quit. Suppose the sellers of the motivational tapes are conducting a study to prove that their tapes help individuals quit.

Match the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses for the study conducted by the sellers of the motivational tapes.

– Ho

– Ha

A) There is no association between the motivational tapes and quitting smoking

B) The is a negative association between the number of motivtioal tapes one listens to and their ability to quit smoking

C) The motivational tapes decrease an individuals ability to quit smoking

D) Those who quit smoking have a lower liklihood of listening to these motivational tapes.

E) The motivational tapes increase an individuals ability to quit smoking

## Expert Answer

### Step-by-step

**1. A) Yes, the sample of Wal-Mart customers is most likely not representative of the population.**

**2.**

**B) 0.091 does NOT imply statistical significance at an alpha level of 0.03.**

**Therefore, option B is the correct answer.**

**3. B. (0.25 – 0.91) would suggest statistical significance, while A. (0.48 – 1.16) would suggest non-significant results.**

**Therefore, option A would suggest non-significant results.**

**Therefore, option B would suggest significant results.**

- Ho: There is no association between listening to the motivational tapes and quitting smoking.
- Ha: The motivational tapes increase an individual’s ability to quit smoking.

**Therefore, the correct answer is E) The motivational tapes increase an individual’s ability to quit smoking.**

**Final results:**

- A) Yes, the sample of Wal-Mart customers is most likely not representative of the population.
- B) 0.091
- A. (0.48 – 1.16) suggests non-significant results, and B. (0.25 – 0.91) suggests significance.

- Ho: There is no association between the motivational tapes and quitting smoking.
- Ha: The motivational tapes increase an individual’s ability to quit smoking.