Cultural Elements That Affects Fertility Discussion Paper
- Classical Transition Theory: The Classical Transition Theory, also known as the Demographic Transition Theory, was proposed by Warren Thompson in the 1920s. According to this view, changes in social and economic variables are what lead to the shift from high to low fertility. This hypothesis proposes four demographic transitional stages for nations. The first stage has a stable population since both the birth and mortality rates are high. In the second stage, the death rate falls, which causes the population to grow quickly. In the third stage, there is a decrease in the birth rate, which causes population growth to slow down. Finally, in the fourth stage, there is a low birth and death rate.We can see that our country is currently in the third stage of the demographic shift. Changes in social and economic variables, such as increasing female education, urbanisation, and availability to family planning facilities, can be blamed for the drop in birth rates.
- The 1983 Caldwell-Wearth Flow Theory The Caldwell-Wearth Flow Theory emphasises how important social and economic factors are in determining fertility patterns. According to this idea, people decide whether or not to have children based on their perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of doing so. The potential cost of having children, which includes the price of lost income and career options, is particularly important, according to the notion. Due to the high opportunity cost of having children, many people in our nation are choosing to delay having children. Many people believe that having children would limit their chances for progress because of the growing importance of education and career advancement.
- Lesthaeghe (1983): Lesthaeghe’s theory highlights the role of plays an important factor change in shaping fertility behavior. This idea contends that people’s attitudes and values towards marriage and having children have an impact on their fertility behaviour. According to Lesthaeghe, values have changed in favour of more individuality and self-expression, which has delayed marriage and childbearing. We may see a similar trend of women delaying pregnancy and marriage in our country. This can be ascribed to a shifting cultural environment that emphasises autonomy and personal freedom as well as an increased emphasis on education and career progress.
- Becker’s Microeconomic Theory (1991): According to Becker’s Microeconomic Theory, economic variables play a significant role in influencing fertility patterns. According to this hypothesis, people decide whether or not to have children depending on the predicted costs and rewards. The idea specifically highlights the significance of children’s relative prices to other products and services. In our nation, we can see that the cost of raising children is rising, which is causing fertility rates to drop. Given the rising cost of living and stagnant wages, many people are finding it harder and harder to afford the expenses of raising children.
- Cleland’s Ideational Theory: The importance of cultural values and beliefs in influencing fertility behaviour is highlighted by Cleland’s Ideational Theory. According to this theory, cultural traits like religious convictions, gender roles, and views on family size have an impact on fertility behaviour. In our nation, we can see that cultural elements like religion and gender norms have a significant impact on how people behave around conception.